The Caddos:
Dominion in the fertile valley
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Original inhabitants:    Caddos         Wichitas         Comanches         Kiowas
Migrant tribes after 1806:     Shawnees        Osages        Tonkawas
Removed tribes by 1830:         Choctaws        Chickasaws        End of the Trail
This may be the only photograph to depict a traditional Caddoan village set-up before reservation life profoundly changed their living standards.
This photograph was taken in the 1870s and is now housed at the Smithsonian Institution.
The original homelands of the Caddos consist of the Red River Valley from southeastern Oklahoma to Natchitoches, Louisiana. Beyond
Natchitoches to the Mississippi River confluence, tribes that claimed allegiance, kinship, or relationships to the Natchez and
(whose principal settlements were east of the Mississippi River) occupied the lands.

Hopewell culture
Caddoans stem from the Hopewell/ Mississippian Cultures of the ceremonial complex period. The Hopwell Culture lived along the
Mississippi and Ohio rivers and built massive fortified cities with earthen pyramid mounds. These cities influenced, through trade,
religion, manufacturing, and traditions, the people living along the tributaries of these major rivers. In Louisiana, the Marksville Culture
was a part of the Hopewell Culture - prominent sites like the
Marksville Complex and Poverty Point Complex were the ancestral homes for
the Caddos. Spiro (near Heavener, Oklahoma) along the Arkansas River and Belcher (near Belcher, Louisiana) on the Red River were
major cities for the Caddoans before de-centralization occurred.

One of the most important pre-historic sites in the U.S.,
Spiro has been plundered by grave thieves but its burial mounds still offer an
incredible window into the lives of native Americans before de-centralization: underground burial preparation chambers, trade goods
that ranged from the Caribbean and Mexico and Canada, copper and bronze decorative plating, baskets of pearls, and pottery and totems
from around North America. David La Vere's
book on this travesty subject is a must-read.

After de-centralization, power rested within villages comprised of familial clans. They still maintained their traditions, such as mound
burials, but these were no longer inside the cities but concentrated within their villages.
Caddo structures
The Caddo homelands featured mainly pine forests punctuated by open prairies. They were an agricultural people who relied on the Red
River for irrigating their corn, squash, and bean crops, which they planted surrounding their familial mound compounds along the river.
Deer, bear, turkey, turtles, and the occasional bison constituted their main sources of meat. Oddly, fish was not a staple in their diets, even
though they lived in a well-watered region.

Their culture was matrilineal - all families traced through the mother's line - but for the most part, their leadership was male. Each village
had a xinsei, a revered religious man and keeper of the fire, and this role was handed down through family lines. The village leader was
called the caddi, and a small but powerful noble class made up the rest of the village councils. Men's work was mainly warfare, hunting,
bow making, and trading expeditions; older men who could no longer participate in these activities may have held advisory roles or
worked alongside the women. Women could also occupy leadership and advisory roles, and a number of European chroniclers mentioned
female caddi. Women of child-bearing age organized village life in the form of building houses, rearing children, and manufacturing export
trade items, including tanned hides, pottery and tools.  The women held a lot of power inside their families. They were responsible for all
points of food production including the dissemination of foods. They also conducted trade and practiced religious rituals, such as burial
traditions. Women also participated in warfare as the "second line:" they meted out torture and punishments to captives.
Excavation of an important Caddo site in Bowie County along the Red River revealed important artifacts; pottery, trade beads, trade goods, and  
totems. This dig was undertaken with funding and labor by the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s. Very few massive archaeological
excavations have since been given the go-ahead. The Red River Valley is one of modern archaeology's most under-researched areas. (LOC)
Simple tools and vessels were uncovered at a mound in Arkansas during the 1960s (Arkansas Historical Association).
Caddo customs
The Caddoans didn't practice any rites that are associated with patriarchal cultures, such as wedding ceremonies. The nobility held
arranged marriages, but average men and women were free to choose the partner they desired, and free to leave them, too. Marriage was
not considered binding because the children, inherently, belonged to the mother. European observers would use their own bias to
determine that Indian women were thus loose on morals, much to the detriment of women held captive by the Caddos. When the French
began trading guns with Caddo men, captive women were trafficked as trading commodities.

Like their distant cousins, the
Wichitas, the people of the Caddoan language tribes tattooed their bodies by rubbing charcoals into the
decorative gashes carved into their skins. Both men and women engaged in this beautification practice; they also exhibited piercings
through their septum. Men's hair styles consisted of a modified "mohawk," whereas women's hair was long, parted in the center, and tied
at the nape.

The tribes affiliated with the Caddo language are often labeled as a "confederation." Scholars have identified three confederations of
people who had the Caddo language in common: the Kaddahadacho along the Great Bend Region of the Red River; the Hasinais between
the Sabine and the Trinity rivers; and the Natchitoches along the Red River in central Louisiana. Every once in a while, these kinship
groups held multi-tribal councils on important issues that affected their well-being, not unlike the Iroquois in the Great Lakes region. This
points to the apt term "confederacy" in that the villages acted independently to a point, but found common ground in larger issues. For
example, Caddoan villages tended to not conduct warfare against each other but led concerted efforts against the invading
Osages. They
also shared common salt mines and bow-making operations, and at times went on trading expeditions together.

Bow-making was a Caddo specialty. They were known throughout the western Mississippi for their strong but flexible bows made of Bois
d'Arc (aka Osage Orange). Bois d'Arc is a hardwood that predominantly grows in the
Cross Timbers along the Red, Canadian, and Arkansas

Europeans invade and trade
While the Spanish were the first Europeans to record interactions with the Caddos, it was the French that upended Caddoan culture
profoundly. Henri Joutel, who led an expedition to the Kaddahadacho on the Red River after Sieur de la Salle was killed, noted that the
women held the primary trading power in the villages. Joutel had brought with him a number of glass beads to trade for food; these glass
beads became prized by the Caddos, who used them to decorate their dresses - the more elaborate and intricate the design, the more
power the woman and her family wielded. The Caddos were especially fond of blue trade beads. However, upon establishing the gun trade
with the French (the Spanish outlawed gun trade with tribes), trading power shifted to the Caddo men, who also traded furs and hides for
commercial rather than locally-made products. This meant that the pottery for which the Caddos were known became a relic of their past in
exchange for European-made goods.

The trade with the French helped the Caddos to flourish relatively well in the early European period. They continued their traditional
practices of mound burials while also establishing trade in French posts at
Natchitoches and along the middle Red River at the Nasonite
village (Great Bend region or in today's Bowie County, Texas). At the same time, the Spanish built a counterpoint to the
village at the
Adaes village in 1716. When the Spanish took over control of Louisiana Territory in 1763, the Caddos rebelled; they had
recognized that the Spanish forced Indians to remain inside the missions to be put to work as slave labor. Instead of asserting war, the
Spanish sent French envoys, such as Athanase de Mezieres, to seek amenity with the Caddos as well as the Wichitas. The Spanish gave
away presents and other tokens to the tribe; this helped to keep the Red River Valley a relatively peaceful place for the time being.
The first European depiction of a Caddo village was done in 1691 by the Teran expedition to the Red River. Note how the homes are located
inside "compounds" surrounded by corn fields. The villages are not centralized, but instead line the Red River. These compounds crowded the
river in Arkansas so much that the Great Bend region was called "Mound City" by early American settlers. A copy of the original map (the
original has been lost) resides in the Archives of the New World in Seville, Spain. This portion is from Texas Beyond History.
Americans want the land
When the Americans bought Louisiana in 1803, the Caddos did not initially react with hostility. By this period, tribal populations had been
decimated by disease and warfare with the Osages, and they had consolidated into small, scattered villages. This consolidation included
people from areas east of the Mississippi River whom the Americans were pushing out, such as the Coushattas - they lived with the
Caddos in a village above Natchitoches. Dehahuit, the Chief of the Natchitoches (and considered the Chief of all of the Caddos by the U.S.
government) attempted to forge good relationships by providing guides to the
Peter Custis and Thomas Freeman in 1806, when they were
charged by Thomas Jefferson to explore the Red River. The Sulphur River Indian Factory, frequented by Indian Agent Dr. John Sibley, was
established at the confluence of the Sulphur and Red rivers (today, southwestern Arkansas) to further negotiate peaceful relationships,
Fort Claiborne in Natchitoches, established in 1804, became a gathering point. Though the Caddos had been somewhat placated by
grand speeches made by Americans and presents given to them, they also recognized that the influx of settlers to the newly acquired
territory was squeezing them out of their own homelands. To avoid war and frontier massacres, the U.S. established
Fort Jesup in 1822
Fort Towson in 1824 - but American settlers, Osages, and tribes that had been pushed out of their own homelands crowded the Red
River Valley. The U.S. urged Caddo removal.

Population loss, warfare, and Anglo hostility against Indians convinced the Caddo tribe to do just that. In 1835, the Caddo tribe decided to
sell their remaining land to the United States. Mexico enticed them with land grants in Mexican Texas, as it had done with the Cherokees,
Shawnees, and Delawares. Because the government realized that the Indians could not pay the fees for the land grants, letters written by
envoys suggest that the tribes act as "colonists." This meant that the Mexican land grants were predicated on the idea that the Caddos
would be "buffers” between the
Anglo Americans, who had been illegally claiming to Mexican lands in northeastern Texas, and the
Mexican army. Therefore, all land designated for tribes by Mexico was disputed territory.

The land promised to the Caddos lay between the Red and Sabine Rivers. White settlers in Louisiana claimed that this land was theirs.
After re-surveys, the Supreme Court held the same view, and the Caddos were expelled. Some members of the tribe found homes along
Great Raft. Others still lived in Texas, but once Texas became a Republic, its government requested that the U.S. prohibit the Caddos
from moving to Texas. Texans believed Caddos were agents for the Mexicans and accused them of committing depredations. Under
President Mirabeau Lamar, the Republic waged a war of extermination on the Caddos who lived in Texas, even burning their villages.
Texas did not honor any lands claimed by Indians at all except to the Coushattas from Alabama, who had been able to pay their grant fees,
held title, and sued to keep their lands near the Big Thicket in Deep East Texas .

Texan hatred
Between 1836 and 1844, the Caddos, now homeless and stateless, lived in small pockets along the Red River and endured raids from
white settlements, and in return retaliated. Peace with the Texans finally came at the Treaty of Bird's Fort in 1844, championed by
President Sam Houston. This peace did not last long, either. In 1845, Texas became a state in the United States, and the U.S. re-negotiated
the treaty to place the Caddos and Wichita tribes in a reservation near
Fort Belknap in Young County in 1854. Surrounding the Brazos
Indian Reservation were a number of Indian-hating white men, who waged war under false pretenses against the tribes. Ultimately, the
United States dissolved the reservation, and the few hundred Caddoans who remained re-settled at Fort Cobb near Anadarko, Indian
Territory with their Wichita cousins.

Today, the Caddos are organized as a nation, with their headquarters located in Binger, Oklahoma. Their new homeland is very different
from their ancestral territory: a windswept prairie west of Oklahoma City and not along or near any major river. Here, they maintain their
language and cultural practices and have increased their census numbers, but it is still a very small tribe compared to their numbers
before European invasion. Their rich history and legacy are reminders to pay heed to the and reverence to the forebears of the Red
River Valley.
The Caddo Village that was purposely burned by Texans in 1836 is noted on this 1841 map by John Arrowsmith, heavily annotated by geographer
William Bollaert (LOC).
Source list:
A History of the Indians of the United States by Angie Debo
Caddo: A survey of Caddo Indians in Northeast Texas and Marion County, 1541-1840 by Mildred S. Gleason
Handbook of Texas Online
Oklahoma Historical Society
The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the convergence of Empires by F. Todd Smith
The Indians of Texas: From prehistoric to modern times by W. W. Newcomb, Jr.